And because its truths are eternal, it will still be read when another century has passed. Frederic Bastiat was a French economist, statesman, and author. He did most of his writing during the years just before — and immediately following — the Revolution of February This was the period when France was rapidly turning to complete socialism.
Dominium maris baltici Between the years of andSweden created a Baltic empire centred on the Gulf of Finland and comprising the provinces of KareliaIngriaEstoniaand Livonia. During the same period Sweden conquered Danish and Norwegian provinces north of the Sound ; These victories may be ascribed to a well-trained army, which despite its comparatively small size, was far more professional than most continental armies, and also to a modernization of administration both civilian and military in the course of the 17th century, which enabled the monarchy to harness the resources of the country and its empire in an effective way.
Fighting in the field, the Swedish army which during the Thirty Years' War contained more German and Scottish mercenaries than ethnic Swedes, but was administered by the Swedish Crown  was able, in particular, to make quick, sustained marches across large tracts of land and to maintain a high rate of small arms fire due to proficient military drill.
However, the Swedish state ultimately proved unable to support and maintain its army in a prolonged war. Campaigns on the continent had been proposed on the basis that the army would be financially self-supporting through plunder and taxation of newly gained land, a concept shared by most major powers of the period.
The cost of the warfare proved to be much higher than the occupied countries could fund, and Sweden's coffers, and resources in manpower, were eventually drained in the course of long conflicts. The foreign interventions in Russia during the Time of Troubles resulted in Swedish gains in the Treaty of Stolbovo The treaty deprived Russia of direct access to the Baltic Sea.
Russian fortunes began to reverse in the final years of the 17th century, notably with the rise to power of Peter the Greatwho looked to address the earlier losses and re-establish a Baltic presence.
In the late s, the adventurer Johann Patkul managed to ally Russia with Denmark and Saxony by the secret Treaty of Preobrazhenskoyeand in the three powers attacked. From his predecessor, he took over the Swedish Empire as an absolute monarch.
Charles XI had tried to keep the empire out of wars, and concentrated on inner reforms such as reduction and allotmentwhich had strengthened the monarch's status and the empire's military abilities. Charles XII refrained from all kinds of luxury and alcohol and usage of the French language, since he considered these things decadent and superfluous.
He preferred the life of an ordinary soldier on horseback, not that of contemporary baroque courts. He determinedly pursued his goal of dethroning his adversaries, whom he considered unworthy of their thrones due to broken promises, thereby refusing to take several chances to make peace.
Mazepa died in in Ottoman exile. He commenced reforming the country, turning the Russian tsardom into a modernized empire relying on trade and on a strong, professional army and navy.
He greatly expanded the size of Russia during his reign while providing access to the Baltic, Black, and Caspian seas. His ambitions to transform the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth into an absolute monarchy were not realized due to the zealous nature of the Polish nobility and the previously initiated laws that decreased the power of the monarch.
His meeting with Peter the Great in Rawa Ruska in Septemberwhere the plans to attack Sweden were made, became legendary for its decadence. After the setbacks ofhe focused on transforming his state, an absolute monarchy, in a manner similar to Charles XI of Sweden.
He did not achieve his main goal: He was not able to keep northern Swedish Pomerania, Danish from to He did put an end to the Swedish threat south of Denmark. Frederick William I entered the war as elector of Brandenburg and king in Prussia — the royal title had been secured in He was determined to gain the Oder estuary with its access to the Baltic Sea for the Brandenburgian core areas, which had been a state goal for centuries.
By this number had swollen to at leastdespite casualties. Russia was able to mobilize a larger army but could not put all of it into action simultaneously.
The Russian mobilization system was ineffective and the expanding nation needed to be defended in many locations.IN WATCHING the flow of events over the past decade or so, it is hard to avoid the feeling that something very fundamental has happened in world history.
During the late 17th and early 18th century, many European nations such as France and Russia were absolute monarchies. Even countries such as England had kings who at least attempted to implement absolutism.
Indeed the concept of absolutism, where the monarch is the unquestionably highest authority. King Louis XIV: A Life From Beginning to End (Royalty Biography Book 6) - Kindle edition by Hourly History. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets.
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John Locke (b. , d.
) was a British philosopher, Oxford academic and medical researcher. Locke’s monumental An Essay Concerning Human Understanding () is one of the first great defenses of modern empiricism and concerns itself with determining the limits of human understanding in respect to a wide spectrum of topics.
It thus tells us in some detail what one can legitimately claim. Outline of History; Prehistory — Prehistory, the rise of civilization, and the ancient Middle East to c B.C.E.
Prehistory to c BCE — Unit 1: Prehistory and the rise of Civilization to c B.C.E.. FC1 — Biological, Cultural, and Technological Evolution in History; FC2 — A Possible Scenario of Human Evolution; FC3 — A Possible Scenario for the Evolution of the Family and.
Lecture 15 Europe and the Superior Being: Napoleon: Frenchmen, you will no doubt recognize in my conduct the zeal of a soldier of liberty and of a devoted citizen of the Republic.